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Khamis, 21 Mei 2015

5252. MH370 - Flight recorders. From Wiki.


Flight recorders

Diagram of location of ship, thermocline, towed pinger locater at end of tow cable, and blackbox pinger.
Detection of the acoustic signal from the ULBs must be made below the thermocline and within a maximum range, under nominal conditions, of 2,000–3,000 m (1.2–1.9 mi). With a ULB battery life of 30-40 days, searching for the important flight recorders is very difficult without precise coordinates of the location the aircraft entered the water.
The frenzied search for the flight recorders in early April, due to the 30-day battery life of the underwater locator beacons (ULBs) attached to them, brought attention to the limitations of the ULBs.[p][272] Not only is the battery life of the ULBs limited, but the nominal distance at which the signal from the ULBs can be detected is 2,000–3,000 m (1.2–1.9 mi), up to 4,500 m (2.8 mi) under favourable conditions.[5]:11 Even if the flight recorders are located, the cockpit voice recorder memory has capacity to store only two hours of data, continuously recording over the oldest data. This length complies with regulations and it is usually only data from the last section of a flight that is needed to determine the cause of an accident. The events which caused Flight 370 to divert from its course and disappear happened more than two hours before the flight ended.[273] Given these limitations and the importance of the data stored on flight recorders, Flight 370 has brought attention to new technologies that enable data streaming to the ground.[274][275]
A call to increase the battery life of ULBs was made after the unsuccessful initial search in 2009 for the flight recorders on Air France Flight 447, which were not located until 2011. The ICAO did not make such a recommendation until 2014, with implementation by 2018.[274] The European Aviation Safety Agency has stated its new regulations require that the transmitting time of ULBs fitted to aircraft flight recorders must range from 30 to 90 days. The agency proposed a new underwater locator beacon with a larger transmitting range to be fitted to aircraft flying over oceans.[267]

Safety recommendations

In January 2015, the US NTSB cited Flight 370 and Air France Flight 447 when it issued eight safety recommendations[q] related to locating aircraft wreckage in remote or underwater locations and repeated recommendations for a crash-protected cockpit image recorder and tamper-resistant flight recorders and transponders.[276][277]

Timeline of events

8 March
Flight 370 disappears after departing Kuala Lumpur at 00:41 MYT (16:41 UTC, 7 March). A search and rescue effort is launched in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand.[278]
10 March
Malaysia's military announces that Flight 370 may have turned back and flew west towards Malaysia. The search is expanded to include the Strait of Malacca.[76]
12 March
Malaysia announces that Flight 370 crossed the Malay Peninsula and was last spotted on military radar 200 nmi (370 km; 230 mi) northwest of Penang on Malaysia's west coast. The focus of the search is shifted to the Andaman Sea and Strait of Malacca.[54][279]
15 March
Officials announce that communications between Flight 370 and a communications satellite operated by Inmarsat indicate it continued to fly for several more hours and was along one of two corridors at the time of its last communication.[77]
18 March – 28 April
Aerial search of the southern Indian Ocean, west of Australia, is conducted.[5][280]
24 March
Prime Minister of Malaysia announces that Flight 370 is presumed to have gone down in the southern Indian Ocean; Malaysia Airlines states to families that it assumes "beyond reasonable doubt" there are no survivors.[281] The northern search corridor (northwest of Malaysia) and the northern half of the southern search corridor (the waters between Indonesia and Australia) are definitively ruled out.[282]
30 March
The Joint Agency Coordination Centre is created to co-ordinate the multinational search effort.[283]
2–14 April
An intense effort by several vessels and aircraft-deployed sonobuoys is made to detect underwater acoustic signals made by underwater locator beacons attached to the aircraft's data recorders. Several acoustic detections are made between 4–8 April.[5]
14 April – 28 May
A sonar survey of 860 km2 (330 sq mi) of seafloor near the 4–8 April acoustic detections is conducted, yielding nil debris.[5]
1 May
A preliminary report from Malaysia to the ICAO (dated 9 April 2014) is publicly released along with: copies of cargo manifest documents; audio recordings (and transcript) of communications between air traffic control and Flight 370; a log of actions taken by air traffic control (Kuala Lumpur ACC) in the hours after Flight 370 disappeared from their radar (01:38-06:14 MYT).[44]
27 May
The data logs of satellite communications between Flight 370 and Inmarsat are released, following criticism over the way this data had been analysed and scepticism of whether Flight 370 really ended in the southern Indian Ocean.[284]
Video tour of bathymetry data collected during the bathymetric survey.
May–December
A bathymetric survey is conducted in the region to be searched.
26 June
Plans for the next phase of the search (the "underwater search") are announced to the public in-depth for the first time and the Australian Transport Safety Bureau releases a report[5] detailing the previous search efforts, analysis of satellite communications, methodology used to determine the new search area.[285]
October–ongoing
The underwater search began on 6 October and is expected to last up to 12 months. The search is conducted in areas where the bathymetric survey has been completed.[286][287]
8 October
Officials announce that the priority area to be searched is further south of the area identified in the June ATSB report.[100] The ATSB releases a report (a supplement to the June report) that details the methodology behind refinements to the analysis of satellite communications.[47]
29 January 2015
The Malaysian government officially declares Flight 370 an accident, in accordance with Annexes 12 and 13 to the Chicago Convention, with no survivors.[1]
8 March 2015
The Malaysian Ministry of Transport publishes an interim report.[39]

In popular culture

The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 has been dubbed as one of the greatest aviation mysteries of all time.[288][289][290][291][292][293][294]
Several documentaries have been produced about the flight. The Smithsonian Channel aired a one-hour documentary about the flight on 6 April 2014, titled Malaysia 370: The Plane That Vanished.[295][296] The Discovery Channel broadcast a one-hour documentary about Flight 370 on 16 April 2014 titled Flight 370: The Missing Links.[297][298]
An episode of the television documentary series Horizon titled "Where is Flight MH370?" was broadcast on 17 June 2014 on BBC Two. The programme, narrated by Amanda Drew, documents how the aircraft disappeared, what experts believe happened to it, and how the search has unfolded. The programme also examines such new technologies as flight recorder streaming and Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADSB), which may help prevent similar disappearances in the future. It concludes by noting that Ocean Shield had spent two months searching 850 square kilometres (330 sq mi) of ocean, but that it had searched far to the north of the Inmarsat "hotspot" on the final arc, at approximately 28 degrees south, where the aircraft was most likely to have crashed.[299] On 8 October 2014, a modified version of the Horizon programme was broadcast in the US by PBS as an episode of Nova, titled "Why Planes Vanish", with a different narrator.[300][301][302]
The first fictional account of the mystery was Scott Maka's MH370: A Novella, published three months after the aircraft's disappearance.[303]
The aviation disaster documentary television series Mayday (also known as Air Crash Investigation or Air Emergency) produced an episode on the disaster, titled "Malaysia 370: What Happened?" In the UK, it aired on the first anniversary of Flight 370's disappearance, 8 March 2015.[304]

See also


Notes

  1. No human remains of Flight 370 passengers or crew have been located; survival in the area where Flight 370 is believed to have entered the ocean is unlikely and the Malaysian government believes all passengers and crew are dead.[1] Additional details in the "presumed loss" section.
  2. MH is the IATA designator and MAS is the ICAO airline designator.[2] The flight was also marketed as China Southern Airlines Flight 748 (CZ748/CSN748) through a codeshare.[2] It has been commonly referred to as "MH370", "Flight 370" or "Flight MH370".
  3. Aircraft altitude is given in feet above sea level and measured, at higher altitudes, by air pressure, which declines linearly as altitude above sea level increases. Using a standard sea level pressure and formula, the nominal altitude of a given air pressure can be determined—referred to as the "pressure altitude". A flight level is the pressure altitude in 100s of feet. For example, flight level 350 corresponds to an altitude where air pressure is 179 mmHg (23.9 kPa), which is nominally 35,000 ft (10,700 m) but does not indicate the true altitude.
  4. Responsibility for air traffic control is geographically partitioned, through international agreements, into flight information regions (FIRs). Although the airspace at the point where Flight 370 was lost is part of the Singapore FIR, the Kuala Lumpur ACC had been delegated responsibility to provide air traffic control services to aircraft in that part of its FIR.[43]:13
  5. Heights given by primary radar are actual altitudes, unlike the pressure altitudes provided by secondary radar.
  6. The interim report released by Malaysia in March 2015 says: "All the primary aircraft targets that were recorded by the DCA radar are consistent with those of the military data that were made available to the Investigation Team." The report does not explicitly state that the unidentified aircraft was Flight 370.[39]:3-4
  7. The aircraft is a Boeing 777-200ER (for Extended Range) model; Boeing assigns a unique customer code for each company that buys one of its aircraft, which is applied as an infix in the model number at the time the aircraft is built. The code for Malaysia Airlines is "H6", hence "777-2H6ER".[111]
  8. One passenger boarded with a Hong Kong passport.[121]
  9. The manifest initially released by Malaysia Airlines listed an Austrian and an Italian. These were subsequently identified as two Iranian nationals who boarded Flight 370 using stolen passports.[27]
  10. 38 passengers and 12 crew.
  11. The timing of the log-on interrogation message is determined by an inactivity timer, which was set to one hour at the time Flight 370 disappeared (it was later reduced to 15 minutes).[5]:18
  12. Information released and reported publicly about SATCOM transmissions from Flight 370 have been inconsistent, especially the use of the terms "ping" and "handshake". It was initially reported as six "handshakes" or "pings" with one "partial handshake or ping" sent at 00:19 UTC by Flight 370, unprovoked by the ground station. The events listed may consist of several "transmissions" between the aircraft and ground station over the course of a few seconds. A readable copy of the ground station log of transmissions to and from Flight 370 is available here [1].
  13. Examples:
    * Malaysia Airlines' chief executive, Ahmad Jauhari Yahya, initially said air traffic control was in contact with the aircraft two hours into the flight when in fact the last contact with air traffic control was less than an hour after takeoff.[183]
    * Malaysian authorities initially reported that four passengers used stolen passports to board the aircraft before settling on two: one Italian and one Austrian.[184]
    * Malaysia abruptly widened the search area to the west on 9 March, and only later explained that military radar had detected the aircraft turning back.[184] This was later formally denied by Rodzali Daud.[185]
    * Malaysian authorities visited the homes of pilot Zaharie and co-pilot Fariq on 15 March, during which they took away a flight simulator belonging to Zaharie. Malaysian police chief Khalid Abu Bakar said this was the first police visit to those homes. On 17 March, the government contradicted this by saying police first visited the pilots' homes on the day following the flight's disappearance,[186] although this had been previously denied.[187]
    * On 16 March, Malaysia's acting transport minister contradicted the prime minister's account on the timing of the final data and communications received. Najib Razak had said that the ACARS system was switched off at 01:07. On 17 March, Malaysian officials said that the system was switched off sometime between 01:07, time of the last ACARS transmission, and 01:37, time of the next expected transmission.[188][189]
    * Three days after saying that the aircraft was not transporting anything hazardous, Malaysia Airlines' chief executive Ahmad said that potentially dangerous lithium batteries were on board.[175]
    * MAS chief executive initially claimed that the last voice communication from the aircraft was, "all right, good night", with the lack of a call sign fuelling speculation that the flight may have been hijacked.[190][191] Three weeks later Malaysian authorities published the transcript that indicated the last words were "Good night Malaysian three seven zero".[48][192][193][194]
  14. The exact amount of this compensation is 113,100 special drawing rights. Using the official exchange rates on 16 July 2014, this is worth approximately: RM557,000; ¥1,073,000; US$174,000; €129,000; or £102,000.
  15. In March 2014, a petition for discovery was filed in a US court by a law firm, not representing relatives of families, against Boeing and Malaysia Airlines. It sought to obtain the names of manufacturers of aircraft parts along with maintenance records. It was reported in the media as a lawsuit or that Malaysia Airlines was being sued.[231][232]
  16. Regulations require ULBs to transmit a minimum of 30 days. The ULBs on the flight recorders on Flight 370 had a minimum 30-day battery life after immersion. The ULB manufacturer predicted the maximum battery life was 40 days after immersion.[5]:11
  17. A-15-1 through A-15-8

References

  1. Rahma, Azharuddin Abdul (29 January 2015). "Announcement on MH370 by Director General – Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia" (PDF)Official Site for MH370. Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  2. MacLeod, Calum; Winter, Michael; Gray, Allison (8 March 2014). "Beijing-bound flight from Malaysia missing"USA Today. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  3. "Saturday, March 08, 04:20 PM MYT +0800 Media Statement – MH370 Incident released at 4.20pm"Malaysia Airlines. scroll down to find "March 08, 04:20 PM MYT". Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  4. "Saturday, March 08, 09:05 AM MYT +0800 Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident – 2nd Media Statement"Malaysia Airlines. scroll down to find "2nd Media Statement". Archived from the original on 8 March 2014.
  5. "MH 370 – Definition of Underwater Search Areas" (PDF)Australian Transport Safety Bureau. 26 June 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015Lay summary.
  6. "Radar data shows MH370 flew erratically, NYT reports"Malay Mail Online. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  7. "Saturday, March 08, 10:30 AM MYT +0800 Malaysia Airlines MH370 Flight Incident – 3rd Media Statement"Malaysia Airlines. scroll down to find "3rd Media Statement". Retrieved 2 April 2014.
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  22. "Search for MH370 to be most expensive in aviation history"Reuters. Reuters. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  23. Neuman, Scott (17 March 2014). "Search For Flight MH370 Reportedly Largest in History"The Two-way. NPR. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
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  25. "Search for Malaysia Flight 370 resumes in Indian Ocean"MSNBC. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014There is still not a single trace of the wreckage, even after the most expensive and widespread airplane recovery mission ever launched.
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  32. Feast, Lincoln (26 June 2014). "Malaysia jet passengers likely suffocated, Australia says". Reuters. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  33. Stacey, Daniel; Pasztor, Andy; Winning, David (26 June 2014). "Australian Report Postulates Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 Lost Oxygen"Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  34. "Malaysia Airlines: experts surprised at disappearance of 'very safe' Boeing 777"The Guardian. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  35. "Malaysia Airlines has one of Asia's best safety records"Reuters. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
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  302. John Goglia (8 October 2014). "Why Planes Vanish: NOVA Documentary Explores What Happened to Missing Malaysia Boeing-777"Forbes. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  303. "The Surprisingly Good Flight 370 Novel: Author Scott Maka Defends His Controversial Book"The Daily Beast. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  304. "Air Crash Investigation"National Geographic. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.

External links

Reports

  • MH 370 Preliminary Report – Preliminary report issued by the Malaysia Ministry of Transport. Dated 9 April 2014 and released publicly on 1 May 2014.
  • MH370 – Definition of Underwater Search Areas – Report by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, released 26 June 2014, and the most comprehensive report on Flight 370 publicly released at that time. The report focuses on defining the search area for the fifth phase, but in doing so provides a comprehensive overview/examination of satellite data, the failed searches, and possible "end-of-flight scenarios".
  • Factual Information: Safety Investigation for MH370 – Interim report released 8 March 2015 (584 pages).

Press releases / Media


Link:
Sumber: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysia_Airlines_Flight_370)
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