Musa I of Mali
Musa depicted holding a gold coin from the 1375 Catalan Atlas.
Mansa of Mali
Reign c.1312– c.1337 (c. 25 years)
Predecessor Abubakari II
Successor Maghan Musa
|Died||c. 1337 (aged 56–57)|
Musa Keita was referred to (and is most commonly found) as Mansa Musa in Western manuscripts and literature. His name also appears as Kankou Musa, Kankan Musa, and Kanku Musa. "Kankou" is a popular Manding female name, thus Kankou Musa reads "Musa whose mother was Kankou".
Other alternatives are Mali-Koy Kankan Musa, Gonga Musa, and the Lion of Mali.
Lineage and accession to the throne
What is known about the kings of the Malian Empire is taken from the writings of Arab scholars, including Al-Umari, Abu-sa'id Uthman ad-Dukkali, Ibn Khaldun, and Ibn Battuta. According to Ibn-Khaldun's comprehensive history of the Malian kings, Mansa Musa's grandfather was Abu-Bakr Keita (the Arabic equivalent to Bakari or Bogari, original name unknown − not the sahabiyy Abu Bakr), a nephew of Sundiata Keita, the founder of the Malian Empire as recorded through oral histories. Abu-Bakr did not ascend the throne, and his son, Musa's father, Faga Laye, has no significance in the History of Mali.
Mansa Musa came to the throne through a practice of appointing a deputy when a king goes on his pilgrimage to Mecca or some other endeavor, and later naming the deputy as heir. According to primary sources, Musa was appointed deputy of Abubakari Keita II, the king before him, who had reportedly embarked on an expedition to explore the limits of the Atlantic Ocean, and never returned. The Arab-Egyptian scholar Al-Umari quotes Mansa Musa as follows:
The ruler who preceded me did not believe that it was impossible to reach the extremity of the ocean that encircles the earth (meaning Atlantic), and wanted to reach that (end) and obstinately persisted in the design. So he equipped two hundred boats full of men, as many others full of gold, water and victuals sufficient enough for several years. He ordered the chief (admiral) not to return until they had reached the extremity of the ocean, or if they had exhausted the provisions and the water. They set out. Their absence extended over a long period, and, at last, only one boat returned. On our questioning, the captain said: 'Prince, we have navigated for a long time, until we saw in the midst of the ocean as if a big river was flowing violently. My boat was the last one; others were ahead of me. As soon as any of them reached this place, it drowned in the whirlpool and never came out. I sailed backwards to escape this current.' But the Sultan would not believe him. He ordered two thousand boats to be equipped for him and for his men, and one thousand more for water and victuals. Then he conferred on me the regency during his absence, and departed with his men on the ocean trip, never to return nor to give a sign of life.
Musa's son and successor, Mansa Magha Keita, was also appointed deputy during Musa's pilgrimage.
Islam and pilgrimage to Mecca
From the far reaches of the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River, the faithful approached the city of Mecca. All had the same objective to worship together at the most sacred shrine of Islam, the Kaaba in Mecca. One such traveler was Mansa Musa, Sultan of Mali in Western Africa. Mansa Musa had prepared carefully for the long journey he and his attendants would take. He was determined to travel not only for his own religious fulfillment but also for recruiting teachers and leaders so that his realms could learn more of the Prophet's teachings.
–Mahmud Kati, Chronicle of the Seeker
Musa was a devout Muslim, and his pilgrimage to Mecca made him well known across northern Africa and the Middle East. To Musa, Islam was "an entry into the cultured world of the Eastern Mediterranean". He would spend much time fostering the growth of the religion within his empire.
Musa made his pilgrimage between 1324 and 1325. His procession reportedly included 60,000 men, all wearing brocade and Persian silk, including 12,000 slaves, who each carried 1.8 kg (4 lb) of gold bars, and heralds dressed in silks, who bore gold staffs, organized horses, and handled bags. Musa provided all necessities for the procession, feeding the entire company of men and animals. Those animals included 80 camels which each carried 23–136 kg (50–300 lb) of gold dust. Musa gave the gold to the poor he met along his route. Musa not only gave to the cities he passed on the way to Mecca, including Cairo and Medina, but also traded gold for souvenirs. It was reported that he built a mosque every Friday.
Musa's journey was documented by several eyewitnesses along his route, who were in awe of his wealth and extensive procession, and records exist in a variety of sources, including journals, oral accounts, and histories. Musa is known to have visited the Mamluk sultan of Egypt, Al-Nasir Muhammad, in July 1324. However, Musa's generous actions inadvertently devastated the economies of the regions through which he passed. In the cities of Cairo, Medina, and Mecca, the sudden influx of gold devalued the metal for the next decade. Prices of goods and wares became greatly inflated. To rectify the gold market, on his way back from Mecca, Musa borrowed all the gold he could carry from money-lenders in Cairo at high interest. This is the only time recorded in history that one man directly controlled the price of gold in the Mediterranean.
Whenever a hero adds to the list of his exploits from conquest, Mansa Musa gives them a pair of wide trousers...The greater the number of a Dogari's exploits, the bigger the size of his trousers.
–Al-Dukhari, observation of the court of Mansa Musa in Timbuktu
During his long return journey from Mecca in 1325, Musa heard news that his army had recaptured Gao. Sagmandia, one of his generals, led the endeavor. The city of Gao had been within the empire since before Sakura's reign and was an important − though often rebellious − trading center. Musa made a detour and visited the city where he received, as hostages, the two sons of the Gao king, Ali Kolon and Suleiman Nar. He returned to Niani with the two boys and later educated them at his court. When Mansa Musa returned, he brought back many Arabian scholars and architects.
Construction in Mali
Musa embarked on a large building program, raising mosques and madrasas in Timbuktu and Gao. Most notably, the ancient center of learning Sankore Madrasah (or University of Sankore) was constructed during his reign.
In Niani, Musa built the Hall of Audience, a building communicating by an interior door to the royal palace. It was "an admirable Monument", surmounted by a dome and adorned with arabesques of striking colours. The wooden window frames of an upper storey were plated with silver foil; those of a lower storey with gold. Like the Great Mosque, a contemporaneous and grandiose structure in Timbuktu, the Hall was built of cut stone.
During this period, there was an advanced level of urban living in the major centers of Mali. Sergio Domian, an Italian scholar of art and architecture, wrote of this period: "Thus was laid the foundation of an urban civilization. At the height of its power, Mali had at least 400 cities, and the interior of the Niger Delta was very densely populated."
Economy and education
The Djinguereber Mosque, commissioned by Mansa Musa in 1327
It is recorded that Mansa Musa traveled through the cities of Timbuktu and Gao on his way to Mecca, and made them a part of his empire when he returned around 1325. He brought architects from Andalusia, a region in Spain, and Cairo to build his grand palace in Timbuktu and the great Djinguereber Mosque that still stands today.
Timbuktu soon became a center of trade, culture, and Islam; markets brought in merchants from Hausaland, Egypt, and other African kingdoms, a university was founded in the city (as well as in the Malian cities of Djenné and Ségou), and Islam was spread through the markets and university, making Timbuktu a new area for Islamic scholarship. News of the Malian empire's city of wealth even traveled across the Mediterranean to southern Europe, where traders from Venice, Granada, and Genoa soon added Timbuktu to their maps to trade manufactured goods for gold.
The University of Sankore in Timbuktu was restaffed under Musa's reign with jurists, astronomers, and mathematicians. The university became a center of learning and culture, drawing Muslim scholars from around Africa and the Middle East to Timbuktu.
In 1330, the kingdom of Mossi invaded and conquered the city of Timbuktu. Gao had already been captured by Musa's general, and Musa quickly regained Timbuktu, built a rampart and stone fort, and placed a standing army to protect the city from future invaders.
While Musa's palace has since vanished, The University and Masjid still stand in Timbuktu today.
By the end of Mansa Musa's reign, the Sankoré University had been converted into a fully staffed University with the largest collections of books in Africa since the Library of Alexandria. The Sankoré University was capable of housing 25,000 students and had one of the largest libraries in the world with roughly 1,000,000 manuscripts.
The Mali Empire at the time of Mansa Musa's death
The death date of Mansa Musa is highly debated among modern historians and the Arab scholars who recorded the history of Mali. When compared to the reigns of his successors, son Mansa Maghan (recorded rule from 1337 to 1341) and older brother Mansa Suleyman (recorded rule from 1341 to 1360), and Musa's recorded 25 years of rule, the calculated date of death is 1337. Other records declare Musa planned to abdicate the throne to his son Maghan, but he died soon after he returned from Mecca in 1325. According to an account by Ibn-Khaldun, Mansa Musa was alive when the city of Tlemcen in Algeria was conquered in 1337, as he sent a representative to Algeria to congratulate the conquerors on their victory.
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Preceded by Abubakari II
Mansa of the Mali Empire 1312–1337
Succeeded by Maghan
- Sundiata (c. 1235 – c. 1255)
- Uli I (1255–70)
- Wati (1270–74)
- Khalifa (1274-75)
- Abu Bakr I (1275–85)
- Sakoura (1285–1300)
- Gao (1300–05)
- Mohammed ibn Gao (1305–10)
- Abu Bakr II (1310–12)
- Musa I (1312–37)
- Maghan I (1337–41)
- Suleyman (1341–60)
- Kassa (1360)
- Mari Djata II of Mali (1360–74)
- Musa II of Mali (1374–87)
- Maghan II (1387–89)
- Sandaki (1389–90)
- Maghan III a.k.a. Mahmud I (1390–1400)
- Musa III (1400–c. 1440)
- Uli II (c. 1440–81)
- Mahmud II (1481–96)
- Mahmud III (1496–1559)
- Mahmud IV (1590s–1600s)
Authority control ISNI: 0000 0000 4243 9696 LCCN: n96040990 VIAF: 1733517
Gunther Holtorf, 2015Gunther Holtorf
Gunther W. Holtorf is a German traveler who, often in company of his partner Christine, journeyed approximately 560,000 mi (900,000 km) across the world in his G-Wagen Mercedes Benz named "Otto", visiting 215 countries in 26 years.
Holtorf had a lengthy career with Lufthansa beginning in 1958, and eventually became an overseas representative; he was later a managing director at Hapag-Lloyd. He developed a love of travel while working in Argentina. In 1989, Holtorf left his job to take an on-the-road journey, beginning with the idea of spending 18 months discovering the African countryside in his 1988 G-Wagen. He was accompanied on this initial trip by his third wife Beate, and after their divorce embarked on another leg with companion Christine beginning in 1990. The couple subsequently traveled a few months out of most years, with a hiatus in 2000 and most of 2001, until picking up intensity in 2005 and beginning to travel almost non-stop throughout the year. After Christine developed cancer, her son Martin sometimes took her place as Holtorf's traveling companion, beginning in 2007. After her final trip in May 2009, Christine settled in Bavaria, where the couple wed several weeks before her death in June 2010. Holtorf resumed traveling with Martin or with Elke Dreweck until 2014.
For the first five years, Holtorf and his companion traveled through Africa, thereafter shipping the car to South America to continue their journeys there. Through subsequent years, they traveled upwards through Central America, the United States and Canada before traveling south again and shipping the car to Australia and Asia and through the Caribbean and into other regions of the world. By the end of the voyage, Holtorf had driven through 179 countries in 26 years. In some countries Otto was the first personal car permitted belonging to a foreigner, and Holtorf was the first Westerner to drive in North Korea.
Holtorf traveled inexpensively, avoiding hotels and sleeping in the car, from which the rear seats were removed, or in hammocks pitched near it, supporting his trips by map making. His map of Jakarta, begun before his voyages in 1977 but updated during them, is the first detailed map of the city. As of 2001, it was 385 pages long. Holtorf has also extensively photographed his voyage. His car is displayed in the Mercedes museum in Stuttgart.
- 1970 - Hong Kong - Welt Der Gegensätze published in English as Hong Kong - World of Contrasts (translator Donna Silberberg)
- 1977 - Jakarta-Jabotabek Street Atlas and Names Index, first published as a folded map and subsequently expanded in many editions such as the 12th edition of 2001, which was a book of 385 pages.
List of travelers
- "Ein Mann und sein Geländewagen: 26 Jahre auf Weltreise". Der Spiegel. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Perring, Rebecca (24 October 2014). "Adventurer finishes his intrepid 25-year drive around the globe in 'Otto' the Mercedes". Daily Express. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Mulvey, Stephen (9 October 2014). "Gunther, Christine and Otto". BBC News. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "Gunther Holtorf, Ex-Lufthansa-Manager Abenteurer und Weltreisender". Bayerischer Rundfunk. 28 February 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "Gunther Holtorf tours Sri Lanka in 1988 Mercedes-Benz 300 GD". Daily FT. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "Gunther Holtorf's 23-year road trip". BBC News Magazine. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Seminara, Dave (7 January 2013). "The World's Greatest Traveler: A 1988 Mercedes That Has Been to 172 Countries". Outside. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "215 countries, 26 years and one engine". The Local. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "Coppia tedesca viaggia per 26 anni, 177 paesi e 550 mila miglia con un Mercedes Classe G". Vanilla Magazine. October 17, 2014.
- Browne, David. "A Record-Breaking Road Trip Across the World". Men's Journal. February 11, 2015.
- Amey, Katie (15 October 2014). "Adventurer finally finishes 24-year road trip after driving 556,000 miles across 215 countries ... in the SAME Mercedes". Daily Mail. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Eyerly, David (26 August 2001). "Gunther W. Holtorf still putting Jakarta on the map". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Gunther, Christine and Otto, How a man met a woman and they set off on an epic journey across six continents in one amazing unbreakable car
- German man drives Mercedes G-Wagen on 557k-mile, 26-year road trip
- Gunther Holtorf completes 884,000km world tour in a Mercedes-Benz G-Wagen
Kisah Lelaki Yang Mengembara Selama 26 Tahun Mengelilingi Dunia
by Oh! Semput
Posted on 20 Mar 2019 09:01:15
Apabila Gunther Holtorf yang melakukan perjalanan selama 18 bulan ke Afrika pada tahun 1988, dia tidak menyangka perjalanannya akan berlangsung selama hampir tiga dekad sejauh 556,000 batu yang merangkumi 215 negara dengan kereta lamanya - a 'Otto' Mercedes Benz G Wagon. Perjalanan itu setara dengan membuat dua perjalanan dari bumi ke bulan!
Semuanya bermula pada 26 tahun yang lalu, ketika Gunther berhenti berkhidmat 30 tahun di Lufthansa, berjumpa dengan isteri keempatnya Christine. Mereka bersama-sama menerjang sepanjang jalan ke Afrika, jalan berlubang dan jalan kerikil dari kampung halaman mereka di Bavaria. Selepas memandu lebih dari 62.000 batu di seluruh benua dan menderita lima serangan malaria, mereka mengambil keputusan untuk teruskannya.
Pasangan itu membuang dua tempat duduk belakang kereta untuk membuat ruang untuk tilam dan ruang penyimpanan untuk pakaian, makanan, peralatan, alat ganti dan perkakas dapur. Mereka melalui Amerika Selatan, Amerika Utara, Asia, Australia dan Eropah, bersama kereta mereka di mana sahaja mereka pergi. Malah, mereka menganggap kereta kesayangan mereka sebagai ahli ketiga dari keluarga mereka.
Pasangan itu berjaya melakukan perjalanan mereka menggunakan wang yang sedikit yang mereka menabung - mereka membeli makanan dari pasaran tempatan dan tidur di dalam trak mereka. "Sponsor dari pihak tertentu sentiasa ditawarkan, tetapi penajaan mereka tidak pernah percuma," jelas Gunther. "Saya tidak pergi ke hotel atau restoran. Tidak sama sekali. Kami hanya membeli-belah di pasaran tempatan dan menyediakan makanan kami sendiri."
"Saya bertemu dengan begitu ramai orang yang berkata mereka mahu melakukan apa yang kami lakukan, tetapi apabila kami menceritakan segala, mereka berkata:". Saya perlu gulungan roti dan kopi panas pada waktu pagi dan pancuran mandi peribadi dan akhbar 'mereka tidak sanggup;
Mereka tidak mempunyai telefon bimbit, tidak ada blog, Facebook atau laman Twitter untuk mendokumentasikan perjalanan epik mereka.
Apabila Christine meninggal dunia akibat kanser pada 2010, Gunther memutuskan untuk meneruskan pejalanan, dengan gambar yang tergantung di cermin pandang belakang truk." saya tidak akan lupakan beliau dan melakukan apa yang saya lakukan bagi pihak beliau," katanya. Menariknya, walaupun Gunther dan Christine ingin menikah, tetapi mereka tidak ada masa - mereka terlalu sibuk dengan perjalanan mereka. Mereka hanya mampu untuk mengikat janji, dua minggu sebelum Christine meninggal dunia.
Beberapa bulan selepas kematiannya, anak Christine Martin menyertai Gunther dalam perjalanan yang jauh ke Sri Lanka, China, dan Korea Utara. Pada tahun 2012, Gunther menemui sahabat baru - berusia 45 tahun, Elke Dreweck, yang mengambil masa selama setahun mengembara dan menyertai beliau untuk perjalanan ke Jepun. Gunther, kini 77 tahun, akhirnya mengakhiri perjalanan epiknya tahun ini di Gerbang Brandenburg di Berlin sebelum kembali ke rumahnya di Bavaria. "Semakin banyak yang telah ditempuh, semakin banyak anda menyedari betapa sedikitnya yang anda telah lihat," katanya setelah ketibaan beliau.
Kisah Mansa Musa, Raja Muslim yang jadi Orang Terkaya Dunia Sepanjang Sejarah
Senin, 18 Maret 2019 06:00
Reporter : Harwanto Bimo Pratomo